Cleopatra VII Philopator: Last Queen of Egypt

Cleopatra VII, often simply called “Cleopatra,” was the last of a series of rulers called the Ptolemies who ruled Egypt for nearly 300 years. She was also the last true pharaoh of Egypt.

Early Life and Ascension to the Throne

Born in 69 BC, Cleopatra came to the throne, first alongside her father Ptolemy XII in her early teens, and then with her brothers Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. Her early reign was filled with political intrigue, family betrayals, and power struggles, which she navigated with remarkable political savvy and resilience.

Romantic and Political Alliances

Cleopatra is perhaps best known for her romantic-political alliances with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. These relationships were part of her strategic attempts to protect Egypt from Roman expansion and maintain her own power. With Caesar, she had a son, Caesarion, and with Antony, she had three children: Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, and Ptolemy Philadelphus.

Cleopatra’s Beauty and Charm

Though Cleopatra’s legendary beauty has been immortalized by many, historical accounts suggest her appeal had as much to do with her intelligence, wit, and charm. A polyglot, Cleopatra reportedly spoke nine languages and was admired for her political shrewdness and persuasive eloquence.

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Downfall and Death

The death of Antony, who was defeated by Octavian (later Augustus Caesar) in the battle of Actium, marked the beginning of Cleopatra’s downfall. In 30 BC, facing a life of humiliation in Rome, she committed suicide, reputedly by an asp’s bite, ending the Ptolemaic rule.


Cleopatra has become a cultural icon, a figure of intrigue and romance. As the last pharaoh of one of the ancient world’s most powerful kingdoms, she continues to inspire with her story of power, seduction, and determination.

Frequently Asked Questions

Was Cleopatra Egyptian?

While Cleopatra was born and ruled in Egypt, her family, the Ptolemies, were of Macedonian Greek origin.

Did Cleopatra marry her brothers?

Yes, Cleopatra married her brothers Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, as was customary in the Ptolemaic dynasty.

What language did Cleopatra speak?

Cleopatra could reportedly speak nine languages and was the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language.

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